If anyone has posted so far on how loud Indominus Rex’s roar is. However, there would not have been a single optimal phase for all conditions, the gait likely having been changed as the situation demanded. The ilium, which in land vertebrates bears the weight of the hindlimb, had become a small element at the rear, no longer attached to either the pubic bone or the thighbone. Fossil finds of ichthyosaur embryos showed that at least one group of marine reptiles had born live young. , In general, plesiosaurians varied in adult length from between 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) to about 15 metres (49 ft). However, as those limbs no longer had functional elbow or knee joints and the underside by its very flatness would have generated a lot of friction, already in the nineteenth century it was hypothesised that plesiosaurs had been viviparous. , During the first half of the nineteenth century, the number of plesiosaur finds steadily increased, especially through discoveries in the sea cliffs of Lyme Regis. A very different hypothesis claims that "plesiosauromorphs" were bottom feeders.
The stroke would have been at its most powerful using a slightly alternating gait, the rear flippers engaging just after the front flippers, to benefit from their wake.
Speaking of sharks, it’s also found that some prehistoric species of sharks were able to attack and kill a Mosasaurus. Here’s a name suggestion: Mosaspinus or Spinomosasaurus. / \ Its specific name means "with a short neck".
Liopleurodon) may have been fast swimmers, the long-necked "plesiosauromorphs" were built more for manoeuvrability than for speed, slowed by a strong skin friction, yet capable of a fast rolling movement. In 2008, Patrick Druckenmiller and Anthony Russell in this way defined Plesiosauria as the group consisting of the last common ancestor of Plesiosaurus dolichocheirus and Peloneustes philarchus and all its descendants. Comparative cranial anatomy of two North American Cretaceous plesiosaurs. Some of the new genera are a renaming of already known species, which were deemed sufficiently different to warrant a separate genus name. Ideally, the flipper is first moved obliquely to the front and downwards and then, after a slight retraction and rotation, crosses this path from below to be pulled to the front and upwards. The modern insight that the neck was, in fact, rather rigid, with limited vertical movement, has necessitated new explanations. Plesiosaurs can be divided into two major morphological types that differ in head and neck size.
Megalodon 5000 bite force T-rex 3000 bite force I seen it in the documentary, spinosaurus hate planes lol you dont want to get on there bad side, MF,R CC F,RD FMRN ,RMD,DM4D D4 D D RDKRNM, m yu cool cus the Mosasaurus is my favorite!!! A number of reasons have been presented for it to be unlikely to be a plesiosaur. I think that is a good hybrid idea by the way.  Despite treating sea reptiles in general, it would for many years remain the most extensive general text on plesiosaurs. , In 2004, what appeared to be a completely intact juvenile plesiosaur was discovered, by a local fisherman, at Bridgwater Bay National Nature Reserve in Somerset, UK. The flippers would have been moved forward in a horizontal position, to minimise friction, and then axially rotated to a vertical position in order to be pulled to the rear, causing the largest possible reactive force. Frey & Riess would have been mistaken in their assertion that the shoulder and pelvic plates had no muscles attached to their upper sides. Must now burn my corpse and act like it was an accident… In 1914, Williston published his Water reptiles of the past and present.
In the remainder of the vertebral column, the number of dorsal vertebrae varied between about nineteen and thirty-two, of the sacral vertebrae between two and six, and of the tail vertebrae between about twenty-one and thirty-two. This photo provided by the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility shows a Halszkaraptor escuilliei fossil at the ESRF facility in Grenoble, France. The majority of their descriptions were, however, based on isolated bones, without sufficient diagnosis to be able to distinguish them from the other species that had previously been described. Skeletal elements of plesiosaurs are among the first fossils of extinct reptiles recognised as such. Another author of the study, Dennis Voeten described it as “a peculiar animal” adding that the dinosaur "combines different parts we knew from other groups into this one small animal.”.
Later in the film, when the Pterosaurs escape and cause havoc, it grabs Zara and inadvertently drops her into the lagoon. Powered and implemented by FactSet Digital Solutions. , While plesiosaurs varied little in the build of the trunk, and can be called "conservative" in this respect, there were major differences between the subgroups as regards the form of the neck and the skull.
It is believed it lived near the ocean surface feeding on fish, turtles, sharks and other small creatures and never went into deeper waters. These vertebrae still possessed the original processes inherited from the land-dwelling ancestors of the Sauropterygia and had not been reduced to fish-like simple discs, as happened with the vertebrae of ichthyosaurs.  It had a length of 12 m (39 ft), and its bite force of 149 kilonewtons (33,000 lbf) is one of the most powerful known.. A first study of this problem was published by Judy Massare in 1988. Since then, more than a hundred valid species have been described. (-__-) https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plesiosauria&oldid=985938841, Taxa named by Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In the early twentieth century, the newly discovered principles of bird flight suggested to several researchers that plesiosaurs, like turtles and penguins, made a flying movement while swimming. The probable food source of plesiosaurs varied depending on whether they belonged to the long-necked "plesiosauromorph" forms or the short-necked "pliosauromorph" species. The limbs were very large, each about as long as the trunk. The neck could have served to intercept fast-moving fish in a pursuit.
Modified perichondral ossification and the evolution of paddle-like limbs in Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs; Storrs, Glenn W.; 1990. They proposed a more limited flying model in which a powerful downstroke was combined with a largely unpowered recovery, the flipper returning to its original position by the momentum of the forward moving and temporarily sinking body. Soft tissue remains of plesiosaurs are rare, but sometimes, especially in shale deposits, they have been partly preserved, e.g. (2012) found the traditional Pliosauroidea to be paraphyletic in relation to Plesiosauroidea.
 Such a lifestyle has in 2017 been suggested for Morturneria.
He soon noticed that the skeleton taking shape under his hands had some very special qualities: the neck vertebrae had chevrons and with the tail vertebrae the joint surfaces were orientated back to front. Um, Spinosaurus would also be able to kill Indominus rex. DONT SAY DOUBT IT!!! In 2012, a mandible of Pliosaurus was described with a jaw joint clearly afflicted by arthritis, a typical sign of senescence.  Frequent explanations for the sightings include waves, floating inanimate objects, tricks of the light, swimming known animals and practical jokes.
The hip joint was formed by the ischium and the pubic bone. , Plesiosaurs have been found on every continent, including Antarctica.. , The distinctive four-flippered body-shape has caused considerable speculation about what kind of stroke plesiosaurs used. , The Leptocleididae radiated during the Early Cretaceous.
In Jurassic World, a Mosasaurus is a tourist attraction at the park – the “Mosasaurus Feeding Show” which is a parody of what SeaWorld does with killer whales.